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How to choose antenna for Wi-Fi?

Question: How can I send Internet over Wi-Fi from one house to another? What equipment and antennas are needed?

Option 1.

The house has Internet and a router with one antenna.

ON THE INTERNET DISTRIBUTION:

At the router we twist the pin antenna and remove it. We buy a panel antenna at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the router’s radio path. For the 2.4 GHz frequency the antenna should be KP14-2400, for the 5 GHz frequency there should be one of the KP18-5300, KP18-5850 or KP18-6150 antennas. Buy cable pigtail N(male) - RP-SMA(male). This pigtail connects the router and the antenna. Each meter of cable introduces losses of up to 1 dB per meter of length. The length of a pigtail for operation at a frequency of 2.4 GHz should be no more than 10 meters, for operation at a frequency of 5 GHz - no more than 1 meter. We hang the antenna outside on the wall of the house and direct it to the subscriber’s house; we use for this purpose standard brackets from satellite dishes. There should be a direct visibility of the subscriber, without obstacles! We choose the direction of polarization of the antennas, in conditions of a city with strong interference it is better to choose horizontal polarization. The router is set up for distribution.

ON THE CONSUMER SIDE:

a) Distance up to 500 m. We put the laptop by the window, turn on the Wi-Fi adapter built into it, set up the reception.

 

b) The distance is up to 500 m. We buy an access point on the same frequency as that of the existing router (for example, Level One WAP-3100 or D-Link DWL-2100AP). We put it at the window. This access point has an antenna pin, this antenna pin and the antenna on the distribution side should have the same polarization (i.e., both have vertical or both horizontal). Configure the access point in the client mode. The access point is connected to a computer or laptop using a patch cord.

 

c) The distance is up to 500 m. We buy an access point for the same frequency as that of the existing router (for example, Level One WAP-3100 or D-Link DWL-2100AP). We put it at the window. This access point has an antenna pin, this antenna and the antenna on the distribution side should have the same polarization (i.e., both have a vertical or both a horizontal one). Configure the access point in repeater mode. Then the access point will catch the signal from the window from the router and re-radiate it in the room where this access point is installed. The laptop will catch the Wi-Fi signal anywhere in the room.

 

g) Distance up to 2 km. We buy the access point at the same frequency as the existing router (for example, Level One WAP-3100 or D-Link DWL-2100AP). We buy panel antenna. We buy pigtail N (male) -RP-SMA (male). We hang the antenna outside on the wall of the house and direct it to the antenna of the distributing router. Select the polarization corresponding to the polarization of the distributing antenna. Connect the antenna with the access point using a pigtail. The access point is set up at the reception, in the client mode. The access point is connected to a computer or laptop using a patch cord.

 

 

 

How to choose an access point:

2 km between subscribers - 2.4 GHz access point - 14 dB antenna KP14-2400.

5 km between subscribers - 5 GHz access point - 20 dB antenna KP18-5300, KP18-5850 or KP18-6150 (see instructions to the access point to select a specific frequency of the antenna).

  

Option 2.

The computer is far away from the antenna mount and the pigtail is too long. Then we buy 2 wireless access points Ubiquiti Bullet5 and two antennas KP18-5850.

Screw the access point with its connector directly into the antenna, hang the antenna on the wall. From the access point to the computer (router), we pull the twisted pair cable. The maximum cable length is 70 meters. On both sides we compress the cable with computer RJ-45 connectors (you can buy a ready-made patch cord of the desired length). The supply voltage is supplied over a twisted pair using a power injector (supplied with Ubiquiti Bullet5 or purchased separately).

We do the same for the second subscriber. Antennas are directed at each other, in the same polarization.

 

Option 3.

The same as in the 1st version, we only buy access points of the MIMO 802.11n standard, with two antennas. Next, we act according to a similar algorithm, only using KAA14-2400, KAA20-5300, KAA20-5850 or KAA20-6150 bipolar antennas (see the instructions for the access point to select a specific antenna frequency). Access points can be bought in principle, any, with two antennas each. We select the access point as follows:

2-4 km between subscribers - 2.4 GHz access point - 14 dB antenna KAA14-2400.

5-7 km between subscribers - 5 GHz access point - 20 dB antenna KAA18-5300, KAA18-5850 or KAA18-6150 ((see the instructions for the access point to select a specific antenna frequency).

Maximum transfer rate up to 100 Mbps and higher.

Stability, reliability and speed of transmission of the variant with MIMO is higher than 1st and 2nd variants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option 4.

The computer is far away from the antenna mount and the pigtail is too long. Then we buy 2 Ubiquiti Rocket M5 wireless access points of the MIMO standard and two KAA18-5850 two-polarization antennas.

Each access point is connected to the antenna in two short pigtails at 20 cm (purchased separately), hang the antenna on a wall, an access point mounted near. From the access point to the computer (router) pull the twisted pair cable. The maximum cable length is 70 meters. On both sides crimp the cable with computer RJ-45 connectors (you can buy a patch cord of required length). The Board is supplied with power over Ethernet by using power injector (included with the access points or purchased separately).

We do the same for the second subscriber. Antennas directed at each other

 

Option 5.

The same as in the 4th version, but instead of using a panel antenna, we use a satellite dish with feed KIR-5800DP. Plates direct at each other. Certain skill is required for precise pointing of the plates to each other. Remember about direct visibility! In case of exact orientation, you can penetrate more than 20 km at a speed of 100 Mbps!

 

 General comments:

Without antennas, routers and access points do not turn on (radio modules can burn)! The window attenuates the signal by 2 dB. A tree in the signal path weakens it by 3-5 dB. Only quality pigtails are needed! There is a lot of interference in the city and the maximum possible distance of communication may decrease by 2 or more times. You always need direct visibility between antennas, without obstacles. When ordering a pigtail, be sure to check which connector is on your wireless device and which connector is at the antenna!